By Ragavendra R. Baliga MD MBA
A set of brief instances prepared via scientific region, emphasising the most important diagnostic positive factors of medical stipulations as usually offered within the brief case a part of the ultimate MB and MRCP examinations. additionally integrated are most probably directions or instructions anticipated from the examiner for every , and the main issues which the candidate needs to inform the examiner. In June 2001 the MRCP brief instances examination is being changed with a brand new OSCE-style examination referred to as PACES (Practice evaluate of scientific exam talents) and this publication will take complete account of this variation.
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Extra resources for 250 Short Cases in Clinical Medicine
Coronary angiography to identify ischaemic heart disease. Ventricular biopsy for specific myocarditis, especially viral, and to exclude infiltrative diseases such as cardiac sarcoidosis and amyloidosis. Radionuclide ventriculography or echocardiography: to quantitate severity of systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction). 24-Holter ECG monitoring: for ventricular arrhythmias. What is the pharmacological treatment of left ventricular systolic dysfunction ? · - · Diuretics for symptomatic patients to maintain appropriate fluid balance.
What are the major manifestations of bacterial endocarditis? · Manifestations of a systemic infection: fever, weight loss, pallor, splenomegaly. · Manifestations of a vasculitic phenomenon: cardiac failure, changing murmurs, petechia , Roth's spots , Osler nodes , Janway lesions , splinter hemorrhages, stroke, infarction of viscera, mycotic aneurysm. · Manifestations of immunological reactions: arthralgia, finger clubbing, uraemia. Name the common organisms found in infective endocarditis. faecahs, fungi.
Captopril reduced overall and cardiovascular mortality, and also reduced the risk of requiring hospitalization or treatment for heart failure (N Engl J Med 1992; 327: 685-91). At 5-year follow-up a substantial reduction in the risk of stroke was observed. Decreased ejection fraction and older age were independent risk factors (N Engl J Med 1997; 336: 251-7). In the recent HOPE trial, ramipril has been shown to reduce significantly the rates of death, myocardial infarction and stroke in a broad range of high-risk patients who are not known to have a low ejection fraction or heart failure (N Engl J Med 2000; 342: 145-53).
250 Short Cases in Clinical Medicine by Ragavendra R. Baliga MD MBA